Program

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A program might be defined as coded or prearranged information that controls a process (or behavior) leading it towards a goal. The program contains not only the blueprint of the goal but also the instructions of how to use the information of the blueprint. A program is not a description of a given situation but a set of instructions. (p. 128) Adaptedness thus is an a posteriori result rather than an a priori goal seeking. For this reason the word teleological is misleading when applied to adapted features (p. 131)

Mayr, The idea of teleology, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 53, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1992), pp. 117-135

Purpose

A spider conducts operations that resemble those of a weaver, and a bee puts to shame many an architect in the construction of her cells. But what distinguishes the worst architect from the best of bees is this, that the architect raises his structure in imagination before he erects it in reality. At the end of every labour-process, we get a result that already existed in the imagination of the labourer at its commencement. He not only effects a change of form in the material on which he works, but he also realises a purpose of his own that gives the law to his modus operandi, and to which he must subordinate his will. And this subordination is no mere momentary act. Besides the exertion of the bodily organs, the process demands that, during the whole operation, the workman's will be steadily in consonance with his purpose. This means close attention. The less he is attracted by the nature of the work, and the mode in which it is carried on, and the less, therefore, he enjoys it as something which gives play to his bodily and mental powers, the more close his attention is forced to be. The elementary factors of the labour-process are 1, the personal activity of man, i.e., work itself, 2, the subject of that work, and 3, its instruments. (Marx, Capital, p. 198)